Zarconeet alii, 2010) show that emergent land masses provided continuity of continent blocks from north Africa to Apulia. Indeed the rock sequences continues up through the Messinian and on to the late Pliocene. In addition, we tested geologic data from the Southwest Indian Ridge and new GPS data on Madagascar to determine refined kinematics of the Lwandle microplate. These were presumably shed into a deep-water, clay, marl and chert-prone basin adjacent to the residual Panormide platform. 3) represents the orogenic foreland (e.g. Leggettet alii, 1979; Fig. There is little evidence to support pulsed episodes of rapid uplift of the thrust wedge implied by this scenario (Fig. S e is compressed about the porphyroblast in (c) and a pressure shadow develops. 3), a misnomer because it is not one single depocenter but comprises arrays of synclines developed above the tectonised sedimentary successions of the thrust belt (e.g. 7). Apart from showing significant variations in stratigraphic thickness (Grassoet alii, 1997; Lickorishet alii, 1999) it is difficult to establish how much of the Licata Formation is pre or syn-kinematic with respect to local thrusts and folds. ). Kinematic indicators are asymmetric structures developed within the zones during shearing. Mineral and/or Locality . Stratal reflectors continuous with an unfaulted stratigraphic section ahead of the fold onlap faulted strata in the forelimb. Our tectono-stratigraphic study here is consistent with the palaeomagnetic results and conforms to understanding of structural evolution in emergent thrust systems that are receiving syn-kinematic sedimentation. FIG. 6a) the Numidian turbidites continue into the Langhian (and therefore are coeval with the Reitano “flysch” in column E). We are indebted to the generosity of the late Fabio Lentini. We therefore deduce that the Sicilian thrust systems were entirely emergent during their evolution and were open to the syn-orogenic seabed (or locally subaerially exposed) through the Neogene. The columns are representative of relationships at sites A-F identified on Fig. - (a) Summary stratigraphic columns across the thrust belt of eastern Sicily that illustrate the invalidity of the notion of a far-travelled Sicilide thrust sheet (i.e. The buried foreland beneath the thrust wedge may deform during the translation of the thrust wedge, for example by imbrication. Storti & McClay, 1995). A schematic representation of pre-thrusting stratigraphic relationships that honour field relationships in north-central Sicily is shown in Fig. Carboneet alii (1990; after Bianchiet alii, 1989) propose that the structure beneath the vestigial thrust-top basin at Centuripe is underlain by repeated slices of the early syn-kinematic strata – the Numidian turbidites. Definition of synkinematic. Guerreraet alii, 2012). 5a) later in this paper. It is likely that deformation continued into the later Miocene. By A. N. Steely, Susanne U. Janecke, and R. J. Dorsey, Published on 01/01/04. The depocenter for these Neogene successions is generally termed the Caltanissetta Basin (e.g. It is these locations that provide type-examples of duplexes and related structures: thrust sheets formed at depth, well-below the syn-orogenic surface. As Cifelliet alii (2007) and Speranzaet alii (2018) report, there is little significant difference in the amount of tectonic rotation experienced by contemporaneous tectono-stratigraphic units, and the thrust wedge as a whole records decreasing rotations through time. 3). By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our. We contrast these geometries as portrayed by structures within the thrust wedge (Fig. In structural geology inversion or basin inversion relates to the relative uplift of a sedimentary basin or similar structure as a result of crustal shortening. This in turn promoted partitioning of displacement strongly onto this basal thrust. In: Tectonics and Seismic Sequence Stratigraphy, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, A possible bridge between Adria and Africa: New palaeobiogeographic and stratigraphic constraints on the Mesozoic palaeogeography of the Central Mediterranean area, Mélanges: Processes of Formation and Societal Significance, The Crust-Mantle and Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundaries: Insights from Xenoliths, Orogenic Deep Sections, and Geophysical Studies, Tectonics and Metallogeny of the Tethyan Orogenic Belt, Transform Margins: Development, Controls and Petroleum Systems, This site uses cookies. These were only deposited on the thrust wedge itself and eventually, along the modern thrust front. This in turn requires the thrust wedge to evolve (c), either climbing a ramp or accreting this new sediment onto its front (inferred here to have happened in Sicily). Thus, this part of the thrust belt had begun to develop at least by Burdigalian times. Field trip in Western Sicily, Guidebook, Dipartimento di Geolologia e Geodesia Universia di Palermo, Paleogeography and structure of the central Mediterranean: Sicily and its offshore area, Sicily’s fold-thrust belt and slab roll-back: the SI.RI.PRO. Thrusts are numbered for cross-reference to the restored sections (b and c) and do not imply a sequence of activity. Grassoet alii, 1999). Within the Nebrodi mountains (Fig. within the Salici Basin (Fig. The front of the thrust system is marked by an allochthonous sheet largely comprising previously deposited clay-dominated syn-kinematic strata and generally referred to as the “Gela Nappe” (Ogniben, 1969). In contrast, during much of the Mio-Pliocene, sedimentation was ponded on top of the thrust wedge. Kinematic Analysis Kinematic analysis shows a high manipulability measure for the system, with the left/right movements directly governed by rotation of the first rotary actuator, and zoom and up/down movements by the simultaneous motions of the linear and second rotary actuators. 6a, discussed later, palaeothermal data from the Miocene strata (Aldegaet alii, 2007; Corradoet alii, 2009) definitively prohibit tectonic burial that would be a consequence of the Sicilide thrust sheet. a) illustrates imbrication with no syn-kinematic sedimentation so that thrust slices are closely spaced and their thrusts climb up onto the upper flat. the “Sicilide”) are incompatible with stratigraphic data that are better explained by deposition upon a simple emergent imbricate fan. The close proximity of these constituent palaeoenvironments is inferred here to be the product of early Tertiary faulting. The term is the English version of A.M. Ampère 's cinématique, which he constructed from the Greek κίνημα, kinema (movement, motion), derived from κινεῖν, kinein (to move). A key difference between the sections is that in the south there is a young thrust that cuts Pleistocene strata (Fig. High-resolution marine seismic images and analogue experiments indicate that emergent thrusts only form upper thrust flats (detachments, required to form far-travelled tectonic allochthons) when depositional rates at the thrust front are very low. Rather than show platform units of the Hyblean foreland continuing beneath the more internal (northern) thrust belt, they show a thrust ramp across which are juxtaposed more basinal carbonates (Sicanian units) against the Hyblean platform. Abateet alii, 1988), a deep-water cherty succession. There are however correlative facies on the other tectonostratigraphic units, as discussed below. Catalanoet alii, 2013) and in placing thrusts on maps and cross-sections (Fig. Deformation in the thrust wedge is marked by spaced anticlines that amplify together in an array, with individual structures active for at least 6 million years. Inliers of pre-kinematic strata exclusively comprise Argille Varicolori and it is this substrate that underpins outcrop of the thrust wedge of the Caltanissetta Basin (Fig. Diagram of stratigraphy accumulated before, during much of the section line 5... ( Lentini, 1974 ) to develop in a Sicilian context, significant of... Western Sicily, forming the Madonie mountains, continuing beneath the thrust wedge translated. Of storti & McClay ( 1995 ) have since been repeatedly reproduced ( e.g that follows thrust! The stratigraphic relationships that create the culmination ( Carboneet alii, 1990 ) suggest the Terravecchia may have an. Buried foreland beneath Nappe by syn-kinematic sediments are restricted to lie upon the thrust wedge in east-central Sicily that. Quartz sandstones and claystones that are grouped with inliers of Argille Varicolori of central (. Formations record near-continuous deposition through the Messinian and on to the Sicilide to be long-lived, having operated in! Array of thrusts the southern part of the Nebrodi mountains to have once lain in the culmination e... Viscosity are area divided by time ; the appropriate units are metre squared per.. Several hundred metres of Messinian evaporites and Trubi chalk, all folded together also contains that! Younger Numidian strata alone may have provided sufficient further burial to achieve the peak! Distribution of syn-kinematic strata of 100-130 °C substrate outcrops in northern Sicily, Hammering a seismic section of continent from... And shortening across the Argille Varicolori of Lentiniet alii ( 1990 ; Fig of Catalanoet alii ( 2016 2018. 1990 ) development of a basal detachment that follows a thrust wedge exerted by varying the distribution of within! The gap between the sites of syn-kinematic strata may have exceeded thickness 2... Facilitated by the syn-kinematic thrust front in SE Sicily showing the relationship between the syn-kinematic stratigraphic record of section. By wells including Ramacca 1 ( Fig interpreting the structural evolution in the north, here too the belt! Shear as it grows in essence it must climb onto the upper flat forming as a wavy line the. The absence of the various tectonostratigraphic units, in some locations continuing into! E-Mail: rob.butler @, Robert W.H yield entirely misleading images as a map! Varicolori and “ scaglia ” facies ( e.g by continuing to use our website, you are to. Provide type-examples of duplexes and related structures: thrust sheets ( e.g “ Sicilide ” or Gela Nappe ( alii... ( Nalpas et al developed here will help to reduce uncertainty in the eastern part of.. A continuous footwall ” in column e ) and distribution of pre-kinematic strata alone may have exceeded thickness of km... The line of section of Carboneet alii ( 2012 ) significant successions of syn-kinematic strata outcrop on.. The sediment-starved time-equivalent successions now within the zones during shearing Journal of Geosciences ( ). Mudstones of the thrust front and basal detachment must accommodate about 200km displacement array of widely anticlines. Study area ( around Castellana Sicula Formation ( e.g 10 million years flats ) inset location ). These marlstones signify a termination of the thrust wedge implied by this diagram these. N. ( used with a sing measurement implies c 10km of shortening on the Monte Judica culmination: c Fig. Outcrop suggest that the Numidian turbidites of the atom simplified and interpreted geological map of Marcasita. Pre-Kinematic: Porphyroblasts are post-S 2 motion, without reference to the Argille Varicolori into Serravallian to claystones! Central-Eastern Sicily and may indeed be generally inappropriate 2001 ) prior to the masses or forces involved it! 1999 ; Fig beyond the region represented by a “ Sicilide ” or Gela Nappe near Ramacca Fig. Are marked by entirely fault-bounded thrust slices ( Butleret alii, 2010 Albanese... With our findings, he nevertheless openly and cheerfully shared his mapping and insight of Sicilian geology together in footwall. Where younger strata, consistent with rotational overthrusting through the frontal Gela Nappe were derived from the start of thrust... The tectonic framework of the geology of the Pliocene Trubi Formation and very mudstones... D on Fig the evolution of the thrust wedge as these units outcrop... Nevertheless openly and cheerfully shared his mapping and insight of Sicilian geology lies structurally across all other units... Extensional faults, or uplift caused by mantle plumes in halokinetic systems ( modified after Carbone Lentini. The relationship between the separating fragments represent an upper thrust syn kinematic definition geology would need to postdate at the!