Also called an interstellar planet, nomad planet, orphan planet, and starless planet. Knowing some of the most oft-used astronomy terms will help you better understand the nuts and bolts of stargazing and the science of astronomy. Saber's beads A broken arc of illuminations seen at the limb of very young or very old lunar crescents. Star Diagonal See more. Archaic Astronomy and the World-Picture of a Flat Earth. Its plural is ephemerides (pronounced eff-uh-MEHR-ih-deez). More recently, this has come to mean the second full Moon in a single calendar month. Milky Way separate search terms with spaces; search for an exact phrase by surrounding it with double quotes; this field understands simple boolean logic . Most eyepieces have metal barrels that are 1¼ inches in diameter; other standard sizes are 0.965 and 2 inches across. Scholars of Greek art, employing criteria about what is beautiful, which today are no longer seen as absolute, judged the style of works from this period as looking more old-fashioned than the more-naturalistic art of the fifth and fourth centuries B.C. satellite-planet definition: Noun (plural satellite planets) 1. 1. also Archaic Relating to, being, or characteristic of a much earlier, often more primitive period, especially one that develops... Archaically - definition of archaically by The Free Dictionary. Astronomy clubs often hold star parties to introduce stargazing to the public. Copyright ©2020 AAS Sky Publishing LLC. Latin for “cloud.” Bright nebulas are great clouds of glowing gas, lit up by stars inside or nearby. Focal Length Magnitude Averted Vision satellite galaxy scattered disc secular motion Any change in movement that happens over a very long time period. Any prominent star pattern that isn’t a whole constellation, such as the Northern Cross or the Big Dipper. Magnification (power) Eyepiece Asteroid (Minor Planet) Gibbous Histogram This is a list of archaic English words and their modern equivalents. Pages 15-49. The modern-day Messier catalog contains 109 objects. Also called the Johnson system or JohnsonâMorgan system. English terms that are no longer in general use but still encountered in older literature and still sometimes used for special effect. The changing illumination of the Moon (or other body) over time. acidum salis: hydrochloric acid (HCl, marine acid, muriatic acid, spirit of salt); literally "acid of salt".. ad siccum: to dryness, as in evaporation to dryness.. aer fixus: fixed air. This contans two dissertations on (1) Understanding Archaic Astronomy and (2) Permenides and the Tantric Yoga. The measure of how much an orbit deviates from being circular. Planispheres can be used to identify stars and constellations but not the planets, whose positions are always changing. Because of this absorbance of words, and the natural evolution of languages, we have lost from daily use many words as new ones take their place. The Sun is a star. Globular clusters may contain up to a million stars, and most are at least 10 billion years old (almost as old as the universe itself). axle (plural axles) The pin or spindle on which a wheel revolves, or which revolves with a wheel. Most people chose this as the best definition of dreyer: (astronomy, archaic) A Dr... See the dictionary meaning, pronunciation, and sentence examples. The term ley line has stuck, however, and has come to mean something quite different than what Watkins originally conceived. A glow in the night sky or around your observing site caused by artificial light. aes cyprium.Cyprian brass or copper. The motivations for watching the sky may have been both practical and philosophical: a suitable ‘cosmovision’ would have helped give meaning to life. acidum salis: hydrochloric acid (HCl, marine acid, muriatic acid, spirit of salt); literally "acid of salt".. ad siccum: to dryness, as in evaporation to dryness.. aer fixus: fixed air. Planisphere (Star Wheel) Ducat, in Latin, means "he rules", "she rules", or "it rules". cal adj. Read more about ways to measure time here. Inclination ‘Astronomy and cosmology have made the universe smaller and vaster than ever before, but where does humanity fit in?’ ‘It focuses on cosmology and astronomy, and on Earth's place in the universe.’ ‘This comment also applies to cosmology, astronomy, aspects of biology and in fact much scientific and medical experimentation.’ Compound Telescope Meteor A small particle of rock or dust that burns away in the Earth's atmosphere. List of definitions of terms and concepts commonly used in the study of astronomy, "Glossary of (comet and) astronomical terms", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Glossary_of_astronomy&oldid=993540388, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, For a list of words relating to astronomy, see the, This page was last edited on 11 December 2020, at 03:54. Comet A temporary dark blemish on the surface of the Sun that is a planet-size region of gas cooler than its surroundings. The eyes’ transition to night vision, in order to see faint objects. virgin (female person who has never had sexual intercourse) (archaic) maiden (young woman) (astronomy, astrology, singular only) Virgo (a constellation and an astrological sign). A mount’s top, or head, can be either alt-azimuth (turning side to side, up and down) or equatorial (turning parallel to the celestial coordinate system). Universal Time (UT)Also called Greenwich Mean Time, expressed in the 24-hour system. SCORPIUS m Astronomy, Literature, Popular Culture Derived from Greek skorpíos "scorpion" via its latinized form scorpio. Limb Also called critical velocity or critical rotation. A star ending its life in a huge explosion. The part of a telescope that you look into. Greek for “circle of animals.” It’s the set of constellations situated along the ecliptic in the sky, through which the Sun, Moon, and planets move. acid of shugar: oxalic acid. Also called a Lagrange point, libration point, or L-point. A lens or mirror’s focal length divided by its aperture. A lens that’s placed into the focusing tube to effectively double or triple a telescope’s focal length and, in turn, the magnification of any eyepiece used with it. A new analysis of ancient genomes suggests that different branches of the human family tree interbred multiple times, and that some humans carry DNA from an archaic, unknown ancestor. (astronomy, archaic) a Dreyer object â an entry/object in the New General Catalogue (NGC) compiled by J. L. E. Dreyer. Pages 51-62. Read more about ways to measure time here. The distance that light (moving at about 186,000 miles per second) travels in one year, or about 6 trillion miles. An event that occurs when the shadow of a planet or moon falls upon a second body. Also called the Lenakaeia Supercluster, Local Supercluster, or Local SCI. It’s equal to the telescope’s focal length divided by the eyepiece’s focal length. Noun. Objective He worked for the legal firm of Brown and Son (later renamed Brown and Sons). Proper filters should completely cover the front aperture of a telescope and should never be attached to the eyepiece; they range from glass used by welders to special plastic film. Also called the galactic core or galactic center. Language barrier. A broad, faintly glowing band stretching across the night sky, composed of billions of stars in our galaxy too faint to be seen individually. At the summer solstice, the day is longest and the night is shortest, and vice versa at the winter solstice. Asterism The list also includes a few colloquial terms that are still in common use in British English, like tipsy or midge, but might be unfamiliar to English-speakers from elsewhere in the world. Meteor Shower Light Pollution In astronomy, Scorpius is the name of a constellation near the center of the Milky Way. Seeing A measure of the atmosphere’s stability. A telescope’s main light-gathering lens or mirror. A number denoting the brightness of a star or other celestial object. aether: ether. Learn more. Archaic Astronomy First-time users please read the Index Page thoroughly for understanding. (astronomy) A planet viewed as a satellite of another object, such as another star; an exoplanet. Zounds! It also gives meanings to a number of archaic terms found on death certificates such as cachexia, breakbone fever, byssinosis, coeliac passion, dipsomania, inanition and Potter's Rot. Sunspot Your index finger held at arm’s length spans about 1°, your fist about 10°. A plot of the number of pixels in an image at each brightness level. Apart for a few exceptions, the general consensus among Greek astronomers was that the universe was earth-centred. Archaic Astronomical Instruments . Some telescopes use extra lenses and/or mirrors to create a long effective focal length in a short tube. This second edition has been fully updated and expanded, and is double the size of the first, with hundreds more archaic medical terms included. Barlow Lens A timetable with celestial coordinates that indicates where a planet, comet, or other body moving in relation to background stars will be in the sky. A grazing occultation occurs if the background body is never completely hidden from the observer. Long out of print, and difficult to come by on the used book market, The Dawn of Astronomy, first published in 1894, is now made available once again. Celestial Coordinates Viewing an object by looking slightly to its side. Many stars are multiples (doubles, triples, or more) gravitationally bound together. Meteor Shower An event where a large number of meteors enter the Earth's atmosphere from the same direction in space at nearly the same time. the term is Used today only in slang. According to one definition, Homo sapiens is a single species comprising several subspecies that include the archaics and modern humans. However, when it comes to the use of archaic words, modern Bible versions are the greatest culprits. Use of these archaic terms indicates to me a lack of knowledge or research by a writer. Galaxy Aligning the optical elements of a telescope so that they all point in the proper direction. Phase A telescope that gathers light with a lens. Retrograde In context|astronomy|lang=en terms the difference between perigee and periapsis ... (possibly, archaic, outside, astrology) The point, in any trajectory of an object in space, where it is closest to the Earth. Parallax For example, a 1st-magnitude star is 100 times brighter than a 6th-magnitude star. PSon the other hand knows all the planets but is too primitive in describing their motion. The most common units in modern use are U.S. customary units in the United States and metric units elsewhere. A grid system for locating things in the sky. For example, most bodies in the solar system revolve around the Sun and rotate counterclockwise as seen from above (north of) Earth’s orbit; those that orbit or spin clockwise have retrograde motion. Culmination Albedo In astronomy, the term albedo refers to the brightness of an object in space. The changing illumination of the Moon (or other body) over time. Aperture Mount The distance (usually expressed in millimeters) from a mirror or lens to the image that it forms. Eccentricity Tantra Vidya Based On Archaic Astronomy And Tantrik Texts Oscar Marcel Hinze MLBD by Mythri Thakkar. In this book, Sir Norman Lockyer, one of the great astronomers of the past generation, applies his advanced knowledge of astronomy to certain problems of the archaeology of his day. The simplest type is a pair of notches or circles that you line up with your target. Start studying Archaic Greece Terms Test 1. Line-of-sight doubles are a consequence of perspective and aren’t physically related. planning your trip to the next big celestial event. Astronomers directly calculate the distance to a nearby star by measuring its incredibly small positional changes (its parallax) as Earth orbits the Sun. Astronomers prefer the use of the term Perigee Full Moon, but the supermoon meme has taken on a cyber-life of its own. Meteor Bái-HÇ is known as The White Tiger of the West and is a mythological spirit creature linked with the west, the left and the fall/autumn season. A few venture closer to the Sun and cross Earth’s orbit. Most are only a few miles in diameter and are found between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, too small and far away to be seen easily in a small telescope. Another term for a book or volume. 2 : a device used in early modern astronomy for calculating positions of bodies. Astronomical twilight ends after sunset (and begins before sunrise) when the Sun is 18° below the horizon. In the last few years Astronomy magazine has used archaic words like wax, buffet, thither, and imagery. Examples include the perihelion precession of Mercury, the tidal acceleration of the EarthâMoon system, and precession of the Earth's axis. Another term for open cluster as they are typically located in the arms of spiral galaxies where there is abundant dust and gas essential for star formation. Blue Moon Yet crystal-clear nights with superb transparency often have poor seeing. Circumpolar A group of people who get together to view the night sky. In astronomy, Scorpius is the name of a constellation near the center of the Milky Way. Archaic Style in English Literature, 1590-1674. Supernova All rights reserved. Constellation An increase in meteor activity at certain times of the year due to Earth passing through a stream of particles along a comet’s orbit around the Sun. The Detroit News saw nothing wrong with the words betwixt and doth. Dirk L. Couprie. The edge of a celestial object’s visible disk. British Imperial units are still used for some purposes in the United Kingdom and some other countries. The amount that a telescope enlarges its subject. What’s the difference between a reflector and a refractor? No, seriously, though: This word list exemplifies "forsoothery" (sometimes also known as "gadzookery"): archaic terms, especially as used in modern literature. Sky & Telescope, Night Sky, and skyandtelescope.org are registered trademarks of AAS Sky Publishing LLC. ... Ducats were displaced by sovereigns throughout the British empire. Most reflectors and compound telescopes require occasional collimation in order to produce the best possible images. Dirk L. Couprie. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. air: formerly a general term for any gas (elastic fluid). He was also a writer on archaic religion, mythology, and astronomy. The field of astronomy features an extensive vocabulary and a significant amount of jargon. The time after sunset or before sunrise when the sky is not fully dark. Brown was an amateur Orientalist. Light-year Variable Star Opposition Ducats are still produced by the Austrian mint. SolsticeThe two times each year, around June 20th and December 21st, when the Sun is farthest north or south in the sky. The diameter of a telescope’s main lens or mirror — and the scope’s most important attribute. Also called a gravitational primary, primary body, or central body. During the archaic period the Doric and Ionic architectural orders came into being. Check out our FREE ebook on black holes. Focal Ratio (f/number) Whatâs the difference between a reflector and a refractor? Knowing some of the most oft-used astronomy terms will help you better understand the nuts and bolts of stargazing and the science of astronomy. A distinctive pattern of stars used informally to organize a part of the sky. Zodiac He was known (locally) as a writer on archaic religion. Special light-pollution filters can be used with your telescope to improve the visibility of celestial objects. Denotes an object near a celestial pole that never dips below the horizon as Earth rotates and thus does not rise or set. It lets you look horizontally into the eyepiece when the telescope is pointed directly overhead. Named for their discoverers, comets sometimes make return visits after as little as a few years or as long as tens of thousands of years. This glossary of astronomy is a list of definitions of terms and concepts relevant to astronomy and cosmology, their sub-disciplines, and related fields. The Difference Between astronomy â¦ The finest refractors produced today are apochromatic, meaning “beyond achromatic.” They use expensive, exotic kinds of glass to reduce false color to nearly undetectable levels. The celestial equivalent of longitude, denoting how far (in 15°-wide “hours”) an object lies east of the Sun’s location during the March equinox. Derived from Latin, albedo means "whiteness" (albus= "white").Albedo is measured on a scale from 0 to 1, where 0 refers to an object that is completely dark, i.e., it does not reflect â¦ Archaism definition, something archaic, as a word or expression. Waning How Thales Was Able to Predict the Solar Eclipse of 28 May 585 B.C. The original design showed dramatic rainbows, or “false color,” around stars and planets. When the Moon or other body appears more than half, but not fully, illuminated (from gibbus, Latin for “hump”). Dark adaptation is rapid during the first 5 or 10 minutes after you leave a well-lit room, but full adaptation requires at least a half hour — and it can be ruined by a momentary glance at a bright light. Dirk L. Couprie. MeridianThe imaginary north-south line that passes directly overhead (through the zenith). Elongation Finderscope Other versions use an LED to project a red dot or circle onto a viewing window. It refers to the time of the formation of monumental pictorial and architectural forms. Also called the argument of perifocus or argument of pericenter. This is a list of archaic English words and their modern equivalents.These words and spellings are now considered archaic or obsolescent within the current status of the English language.Given both the rapidity of change in modern English and the number of versions used by nations and cultures, it should be borne in mind that dates are approximate and that the information here may â¦ Pages 3-14. There are 88 official constellations, which technically define sections of the sky rather than collections of specific stars. Right Ascension (R.A.) It’s anchored to the celestial poles (directly above Earth’s north and south poles) and the celestial equator (directly above Earth’s equator). It greatly reduces how many stars you can see. The Shape of the Earth According to Thales. Whosoever shall gaze hither may find a trove of long-lost words and betimes cry, "Heyday!" 1723, John Harris, âPlanetsâ, in Lexicon Technicum: Or, An Universal English Dictionary Of Arts And Sciences: The Motions of the Å¿ix Primary Planets round the Sun is So adjuÅ¿ted, that the Square of the Times of their peroidical [ sic] â¦ The Moon and planets never stray far from the ecliptic. For example, a test of the topology [archaic population A, archaic population B, (colonies 50–70), (colonies 97–100)] fails to detect a fraction of 5% ancestry contributed by archaic population B to colonies 97–100 in simulation model ii (Fig. Aether nitri, literally "nitric ether", was ethyl nitrate (C 2 H 5 NO 3) . A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon’s shadow falls upon Earth, which we see as the Moon blocking the Sun. Publication: Astronomy of the Ancients. satellite planet ( plural satellite planets ) ( archaic, astronomy) A moon of a planet besides Earth; a secondary planet; a natural planetary satellite.  This term arose from the study of Greek art, where it mainly refers to styles of surface decoration and sculpture, placing it chronologically between geometric and Classical Greek art. LordZB. At such times the object is visible all night — rising at sunset and setting at sunrise. A telescope’s magnification can be changed by using eyepieces with different focal lengths; shorter focal lengths yield higher magnifications. The best seeing often occurs on hazy nights, when the sky’s transparency is poor. Occultation Astronomy is concerned with the study of celestial objects and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth. The circle of sky that you see when you look through a telescope or binoculars. Earthshine When Earth’s shadow falls upon the Moon, it causes a lunar eclipse. See more. Declination (Dec.) A unit of length refers to any arbitrarily chosen and accepted reference standard for measurement of length. A concentration of mass so dense that nothing — not even light — can escape its gravitational pull once swallowed up. 20 Great Archaic Words. When the Moon or a planet appears especially close either to another planet or to a bright star. Black Hole This glossary of astronomy terms contains definitions for some of the most common words used in astronomy, cosmology, astrophysics, and space exploration. The term archaic, meaning “old-fashioned” and designating Greek history from approximately 750 to 500 B.C., stems from art history. Ephemeris The Archaic Period is preceded by the Greek Dark Age (c.1200- 800 BCE), a period about which little is known for sure, and followed by the Classical Period (c. 510- 323 BCE), â¦ The metric system is sub-divided into SI and non-SI units. The fraction of the Moon or other body that we see illuminated by sunlight. This technique can help you detect faint objects that are invisible when you stare directly at them. The apparent size of an object in the sky, or the distance between two objects, measured as an angle. of these the first dissertation concerns with the understanding of Archaic Astronomy from the stand-point of a psychologist of perception, trained in Astronomy. Also called the Local Supercluster (LSC or LC). force a term to be included by preceding it with a + sign; force a term to be excluded by preceding it with a -sign. Refractor Read more about ways to measure time here. It’s invisible when the sky is lit up by artificial light or bright moonlight. Why is a meteor not a meteorite? When the Moon or a planet passes directly in front of a more distant planet or star. Transparency Also called a “shooting star.” If material survives the trip through the atmosphere, it’s called a meteorite after landing on Earth’s surface. Also called the normalized polar moment of inertia. or "Gramercy!" Double Star (Binary Star) As the so-called new-age movement incorrectly uses the term, ley lines are said to be paths of energy running across the surface of the earth. Eclipse Giant definition, (in folklore) a being with human form but superhuman size, strength, etc. From the beginning its writers were Greeks living not only in Greece proper but also in Asia Minor, the Aegean Islands, and Magna Graecia (Sicily and southern Italy). A massive ball of gas that generates prodigious amounts of energy (including light) from nuclear fusion in its hot, dense core. Pages 1-1. The device that supports your telescope, allows it to point to different parts of the sky, and lets you track objects as Earth rotates. Fundamental » All languages » English » Terms by usage » Archaic terms. 1 archaic : speculation, theory âsometimes used in plural. Archaic or Unusual Words found in Tolkien’s Works. Ecliptic In some cases the contract of the lease may allow the lessee to sell or devise the land, but the land still reverts to the owner at the end of the specified period. Astrology definition is - the divination of the supposed influences of the stars and planets on human affairs and terrestrial events by their positions and aspects. The archaic astronomy of PSis quite unlike that of later siddhÄntasthat give the number of revolutions of different planets in a long period of years called kalpa14. A solid body orbiting the Sun that consists of metal and rock. Also called Laplace's invariable plane or the Laplace plane. The term âarchaicâ is used primarily in art scholarship to designate the early period of ancient Greek fine art (seventh-sixth centuries B.C.). English. Sunlight reflected by Earth that makes the otherwise dark part of the Moon glow faintly.